Preclinical CRO offering Xenograft Studies

KARPAS 299 Xenograft Model

KARPAS 299 Cell Line Derived Xenograft

In vivo xenograft tumor models are instrumental in addressing mechanism of action (MoA), PK/PD and evaluating combination therapies. KARPAS 299 cells were initially isolated from a patient with T cell lymphoma and are grown under asceptic conditions prior to subcutaneous injection in immunocompromised mice.

Research using KARPAS 299 cells has contributed significantly to our understanding of lymphoma biology. For example, KARPAS 299 cells have been used to study the role of various signaling pathways, such as the JAK/STAT and NF-κB pathways, in the development and progression of lymphoma. Additionally, KARPAS 299 cells have been used to screen for potential anticancer agents, including chemotherapy drugs and targeted therapies. KARPAS299 cells have been used to study the mechanisms underlying drug resistance in lymphoma. Studies have shown that resistance to chemotherapy drugs such as doxorubicin and vincristine can arise due to alterations in drug metabolism, DNA damage repair mechanisms, and drug efflux pumps. Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance in KARPAS 299 cells has led to the development of combination therapies and targeted therapies that can overcome drug resistance in lymphoma. KARPAS 299 cells have been an important tool in lymphoma research and have provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying lymphoma development and progression, as well as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease.  The KARPAS 299 CDX model is utilized to determine tumor growth inhibition in both monotherapy studies (e.g AP26113 dose-dependent inhibition of p-ALK) and combination therapy studies (e.g crizotinib and chloroquine exhibit significant decrease in tumor growth relative to the non-treated control mice).

KARPAS 299 No noted mutations
Origin Lymphoma
Disease Non-Hodgkin’s Large Cell
Metastatic Models (Lymphoma) A20, EL4
Non-Metastatic Models (Lymphoma) DOHH2, KARPAS 299, Raji, Ramos

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KARPAS 299 Xenograft Model

What is a Xenograft?

Development of an anti-cancer therapeutic requires intense, well planned studies that follow a streamlined path for success.  Primary studies are performed in an in vitro setting that allows for high throughput screening and analysis of multiple compounds of interest.  This method enables a focused compound screening approach of multiple cell lines within a specific cancer type, or a divergent approach across a broad range of cancer types.  Ultimately, in vitro screening results need to be confirmed in an animal model due to in vitro inadequacies of cells cultured on plastic, as this method is far removed from the microenvironment of a tumor.

As the logical next step in therapeutic development is the administration of the test compound in a living animal, a cell line derived xenograft model (CDX) is created by inoculating human cancer cell lines in test animals.  The injected cell lines grow into established tumors, thus, permitting efficacy studies of the test compounds.  An alternative to CDX models is the patient derived tumor xenograft (PDX) which consists of implanting human tumor fragments directly in a mouse model.  The PDX model avoids concerns with the CDX model since the tumor is never grown on plastic and there is no selection for single cell populations.  In contrary to CDX models, the ideology of PDX models is to maintain the cell population, structure and stroma of the initial tumor.

Why use Xenograft Models?

Cell line derived xenograft (CDX) models or patient derived tumor xenograft (PDX) models enable a larger realm of parameters to be studied not capable with in vitro studies.  The complete animal system model expands the scope of studies available to include the effect of test compounds on pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), alternate routes of delivery, inhibition of metastasis, CBCs, dosing regimens, dose levels, etc.  However, one of the major drawbacks of CDX and PDX models is that the human cancer cell lines or human patient derived tumors must be implanted in immunocompromised mice in order to bypass the graft versus host rejection by the animal.  With the increasing focus of the immune systems role in the recognition and elimination of tumor cells (i.e. immunotherapy), major consideration must be taken into account during experimental concept design of the limitation of checkpoint inhibitors or desired immune response involvement in tumor efficacy.  Similarly, any tumor regression after treatment with a test compound in these models will not exhibit the potential complement cascade or innate immune response of the injected therapeutic in humans.

What we offer?

Our in vivo xenograft service department evaluates the efficacy of preclinical and clinical cancer therapeutics utilizing more than 50 validated immunocompromised xenograft mouse models.  The value of utilizing our xenograft service department is highlighted by the ability to completely characterize the efficacy, dose regimen, dose levels and optimal combination ratios of lead compounds for cancer, obesity, diabetes, infections and immunology research.

During the design and execution of the xenograft study, our scientists will communicate with and assist the client’s decisions regarding these details:

  • Study Group Formation: classification of mice by body weight, tumor size or other parameters
  • Cancer Cell Line: use of in-house cell lines or utilization of customer-provided cell lines
  • Tumor Implantation: intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, submuscular or intravenous
  • Test Compound Administration: intraperitoneal, intravenous, tail vein, subcutaneous, topical, oral gavage, osmotic pumps or subcutaneous drug pellets
  • Sample Collection: Tumors/tissues can be fixed in 10% NBF, frozen in liquid N2 or stabilized in RNAlater; blood chemistry analysis can be performed throughout the in-life portion of study


Our vivarium is designed such that it enables cost-effective and first-rate preclinical effectiveness testing services. All animal handling and maintenance is regulated following IACUC guidelines.  Our facility consists of the following:

  • IACUC-regulated and GLP-compliant
  • Controlled, limited access lab areas
  • Disposable cages
  • Sterile food and water
  • SPF (specific pathogen-free) animals to guarantee pathogens do not interfere with the experiment
  • Established animal handling and micro-injection equipment systems, including an animal health observation program
  • All studies follow pre-approved SOPs

Our staff understands that each proposed study design is unique and customized to the client’s needs.  We also recognize the importance of the delivered results as being confidential, highly reproducible and that 100% of the intellectual property (IP) is owned by the client.

In order to receive a quote for your xenograft study, email us the specific details listed below in order to efficiently begin the study quote process:

  • Cancer cell line(s) used in the study
  • Number (n=) of animals in each study group
  • Number of study groups and control groups
  • Tumor implantation route
  • Administration route of test compound
  • Species of immunocompromised mouse (e.g. NOD/SCID, athymic Nude)
  • Treatment and dose schedule
  • Study endpoint and analysis (e.g. tumor growth delay, PK/PD, survival, toxicity, drug combinations)
  • Samples collected: tumor and tissues to be collected, including storage condition (e.g. snap frozen, RNAlater, 10% NBF, nucleic acid isolation)

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KARPAS 299 Xenograft Model